Wednesday, August 02, 2006

 

"Misyar" marriage (English)/ Mariage "misyar" (Français)

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English text :

"Misyar" marriage

Khalid Chraibi

“(Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are Believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time, when ye give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues.” (Quran V,5)

Summary of major findings :

Contrary to widely-held beliefs, misyar marriage fits within the general regime of marriage in Muslim law, and not in a special regime. Its fulfillment of all the requirements of the sharia is a sine qua none condition for its validity.

Muslim law confers on the parties the right to set up in the marriage contract certain particular stipulations relative to their reciprocal rights and obligations. When the parties agree, within the framework of the marriage "misyar", that the woman will give up some of the rights the law confers to her as a wife, this is perfectly legal, if that is her will freely expressed.

But, in the event of a change of circumstances, she can assert all the rights which the law confers to her in her capacity as a wife (like the "nafaqa" for example), because these are inalienable rights within the framework of the marriage.

The clause of renunciation constitutes only a promise not to assert certain rights. It has an undeniable standing as a moral commitment, but is of no value on the legal level. The wife can thus respect it as long as she wishes, and reclaim all her legal rights when she needs to do so.

Such a clause does not affect in any way the rights of the children who could be born from this union, such as the recognition of paternity, the effects of filiation, the financial responsibility of the father for his children, or the lawful rights of the wife and children to their share of inheritance, etc.

Despite the fact that the "misyar" marriage is perfectly legal, according to the theologians, and that the wife can reclaim at any time the rights which she gave up at the time of establishment of the marriage contract, many theologians like Muhammad Ibn Othaymin or Nassirouddine Al-Albany, as well as many Al Azhar professors, are opposed to this type of marriage because it contradicts the spirit of the islamic law of marriage and has perverse effects on the woman, the family and the community in general.


== Definition of a Misyar Marriage ==

"Nikah Misyar" or "travellers' marriage" (Arabic language|Arabic]]: {{Ar|نكاح المسيار}}) can be described as a legal framework of [[marriage]] in which a [[Islam|Muslim]] couple is united by the bonds of marriage, based on the usual Islamic marriage contract, but without the husband having to take the usual financial commitments with respect to his wife. The latter exempts him from some of them by a clause of the marriage contract through which she gives up some of her rights (such as cohabitation with the husband, the equal division of the nights between all the wives in the event of [[polygamy]], the residence, the subsidy of maintenance "nafaqa", etc...). (1)

The wife continues to carry out a separate life from that of her husband, living in her home and providing for her needs by her own means. But her husband has the right to go to her home (or to the residence of her parents, where she is often supposed to reside), at any hour of the day or the night, whenever he wants to. The couple can then appease in a licit way their "legitimate sexual needs" (to which the wife cannot refuse herself).

The marriage misyar represents, according to some, a spontaneous adaptation of the mode of marriage to the concrete needs of people who are not able any more to marry in the traditional way in countries such as [[Saudi Arabia]], [[Kuwait]] or the [[United Arab Emirates]], because of the dearness of the rents ; the high cost-of-life in general; the high amounts of [[dowry]] required; and other similar economic and financial reasons. (2)

It fits the needs of a conservative society which punishes severely “[[zina]]” ([[fornication]]) and other sexual relationships which are established outside the bonds of marriage. The [[Theology|theologians]] explain that it is suitable for young people whose resources are too limited to found a home ; for the all too-numerous widows living in the area, who have their own residence and their own financial resources, and who cannot hope to marry again according to the usual formula (or do not wish to), because they have dependent children, for example ; for the numerous divorcees ; as well as for the "old maids" who see their youth fading in an involuntary celibacy, without having tasted the joys of marriage, for one reason or another. Thus, a million and half women are reduced to a situation of forced celibacy in Saudi Arabia alone. (3)

The Sheikh of [[Al-Azhar]] [[Muhammad Sayid Tantawi]] and the well-known theologian [[Yusuf Al-Qaradawi]] note, however, in their writings and in their lectures, that a major proportion of the men who take a spouse in the framework of the marriage "misyar" are already married men. (4)

Some traits of this marriage are reminiscent of the Nikah [[Mut'ah]] which was practised in Arabia before Islam, and is still practised by [[Shia]] Muslims as a legitimate form of marriage, although it is considered as an illicit one by [[Sunni]] Muslims. (5)

But, whereas the Nikah Mut'ah is based on a contract with a fixed date of expiration, the Misyar marriage contract is concluded for an indeterminate period (even though the husband who enters into this union looks at it only as a temporary marriage, which ends up in divorce in 80 % of the cases).

The popularity of misyar marriage today results, probably, from a misunderstanding about its real nature, and about its true legal implications for the husband, the wife and the children that may be born from this marriage.

== Licitness of misyar marriage ==

From a legal standpoint, the marriage "misyar" raises several complex issues : is it licit ? Doesn’t it violate the wife’s legitimate rights ? What is the legal value of the wife’s renunciation to some of her rights ? What effets does this situation have on the family and at the social level ?

Contrary to widely-held beliefs, misyar marriage fits within the general regime of marriage in Muslim law, and not in a special regime. Its fulfillment of all the requirements of the sharia is a sine qua none condition for its validity.

Thus, when Muslim theologians say that the "misyar" marriage is perfectly licit, all they mean is that the contract on which it is based must fulfill all the requirements set out by the charia (agreement of both parties ; presence of a tutor in certain rites ; payment by the husband to his wife (or to the "tutor") of a dowry of an amount agreed upon between them (which can be important or modest, according to their wishes) ; presence of witnesses ; publicity of the marriage...). (6)

The Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA), a specialized body of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), has conforted this point of view in a fatwa (7) of April 12, 2006. (8) and (9)

The clause by which the woman gives up some of her rights (the cohabitation of the couple, the residence, the subsidy towards maintenance (nafaqa)...) raises, for its part, more subtle points of law. Does it belong with this category of well-known clauses in Muslim law which are against the essence of the marriage contract, and which vitiate the latter and make it null, as well as the legal union which is based upon it? Or, maybe, with this second category of clauses which are struck of nullity, whereas the marriage contract remains valid?

The Sheikh of Al-Azhar Muhammad Sayyed Tantawi reminds one, in this respect, that Muslim law confers on the parties the right to set up in the marriage contract certain particular stipulations relative to their reciprocal rights and obligations. When the parties agree, within the framework of the marriage "misyar", that the woman will give up some of the rights the law confers to her as a wife, this is perfectly legal, if that is her will freely expressed. (10)

The former mufti of Egypt Nasr Fareed Wassel adds, for his part, that the woman can legitimately give up some of her rights at the time of marriage, if she so wishes, owing to the fact that she has private means, for example, or that her father intends to continue to provide for her needs. But, in the event of a change of circumstances, she can assert all the rights which the law confers to her in her capacity as a wife (like the "nafaqa" for example), because these are inalienable rights within the framework of the marriage. (11)

Wassell notes that the clause of renunciation constitutes only a promise not to assert certain rights. It has an undeniable standing as a moral commitment, but is of no value on the legal level. The wife can thus respect it as long as she wishes, and reclaim all her legal rights when she needs to do so.

He adds that such a clause does not affect in any way the rights of the children who could be born from this union, such as the recognition of paternity, the effects of filiation, the financial responsibility of the father for his children, or the lawful rights of the wife and children to their share of inheritance, etc. (12)

The eminent Saudi theologian Abdullah bin Sulaiman bin Menie, a member of the Higher Council of Ulemas of Saudi Arabia, corroborates this point of view. In his opinion, the wife can denounce at any time the renunciation she agreed to at the time of marriage, and require of her husband that he give her all her rights, including that he live with her and provide for her financial needs ("nafaqa"). The husband can then either give her satisfaction or grant her a divorce (a right that any husband can exercise at any time, anyway). (13)

Professor Yusuf Al-Qaradawi , for his part, observes that he doesn’t support this type of marriage, but has to recognize that it is licit (14). He then states straightforwardly his preference that the clause of renunciation be not included within the marriage contract, but be the subject of a simple verbal agreement between the parties (15). He underlines the fact that Muslims are held by their commitments, whether they are written or verbal.

He thus conforts the point of view of Wassel and bin Menie on this question. He adds that the inclusion of this clause in the act would not invalidate the latter, which rejoins the point of view of the other two lawyers when they say that the clause can be denounced by the woman, and be declared without legal value, without calling into question the validity of the marriage itself.

== Negative effects of misyar marriage ==

Despite the fact that the "misyar" marriage is perfectly legal, according to the theologians, and that the wife can reclaim at any time the rights which she gave up at the time of establishment of the marriage contract, many theologians like Muhammad Ibn Othaymin or Nassirouddine Al-Albany (16), as well as many Al Azhar professors (17), are opposed to this type of marriage because it contradicts the spirit of the islamic law of marriage and has perverse effects on the woman, the family and the community in general.

It leads to a degradation of men’s morals, resulting in an irresponsible behaviour towards their spouses. Based on the experience of the "misyar marriage agencies", the man who resorts to the "misyar" marriage is usually married to a first wife with whom he shares a residence, and to the financial needs of whom he provides. (18)

It wouldn’t come to this man’s mind to marry a second wife within the regime of polygamy, if he had to obtain the agreement of his first wife and to assume important additional financial responsibilities towards his second wife.

But, thanks to the "misyar" marriage, this man feels relieved of any financial or moral responsibility towards his second wife, as if she were only a licit sexual partner, a mistress “halal”. He thinks he can bring this relationship to an end by a mere act of repudiation, at any time, without any negative consequences for himself. (19)

Since he usually refrains from telling his first wife of his second marriage, the relationship within the couple is distorted, resulting at times in major complications which can even end in divorce, when the first wife finds out about the situation.

As to the second wife, her status is devalued, because she does not have any right on her husband, be it over the time he gives her, his presence at her home, or his financial contribution to help her cover her own needs. Moreover, this type of marriage ends up sooner or later in divorce, (in 80 % of the cases, according to some), when the wife is no longer to the liking of the husband. She finds herself abandoned, to lead a solitary life as before the marriage, but traumatized by the experience. Her social status also suffers from her repudiation.

For these reasons, Al-Albany considers that the "misyar" marriage is not licit, because it runs counter to the objectives and the spirit of marriage in islam, as described in this verse from the Quran :

“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts)…” (20)

It also seems to run counter to the recommendations of this well-known verse from the Quran :

“(Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are Believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time, when ye give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues.” (21)

Al-Albany and Wassel also underline the family and social problems which result from the “misyar” marriage, particularly in the event that children are born from this union. The children raised by their mother in a home from which the father is always absent, without reason, may develop serious disturbances on the psychological level (16) and (22). The situation becomes even worse if the wife is abandoned or repudiated by her husband "misyar", with no means of subsistence, as usually happens.

As for Ibn Othaymin, he recognizes the licity of “misyar” marriage from the legal standpoint, but considers that it should be opposed because it has been turned into a real merchandise that is being marketed on a large scale by “marriage agencies”, with no relation to the nature of Islamic marriage. (16)

The authors who oppose this type of marriage also underline its harmful effects on the community at large, in that it allows the development of questionable sexual practices which put the community's religious beliefs, values and practices in a dubious light.

Thus, wealthy Muslim tourists from the Gulf region regularly go on vacation to exotic places where they “marry" local call-girls according to Islamic rites, in order for their frolicking to be "halal" (licit in a religious sense). In some cases, the notary of the local “marriage agency” prepares simultaneously the papers of marriage and those of divorce, to save time. (23)

Such parodies of islamic marriage carry a prejudice to the image of the whole community, and can also have a bad influence on the younger generation.

== New family law codes ==

The proponents of the marriage "misyar", though they recognize that it can result in such drifts, observe that it doesn’t have a monopoly on them. They result, more generally, from the way in which men interpret and apply the rules of Muslim law : unslung polygamy, easy repudiation, associated with great wealth, are its basic factors.

It would therefore be more accurate to explain this state of things as a heritage from medieval times, when marriage was defined by Muslim authors as "a contract posed in order to acquire the right to enjoy the woman". (24)

Women organizations often observe, in this respect, that the Quranic verses and the Hadiths which deal with these issues have, more often than not, been interpreted, throughout Muslim history, in favour of men and at the expense of women's and children's rights. (25)

They remind one that numerous feminine movements and reformist authors have been asking, throughout the 20th c., for a different reading of Muslim family law, using a modern point of view, in order to adapt it to the needs of a modern society. In their view, one can scrupulously respect both the provisions of a religious nature and women's and children’s rights, as established by modern international law. (26)

But this requires that the modern Muslim community recognize at its proper value the central role of the woman and the family within the community, instead of devaluing them. It wouldn’t be possible, anymore, for men to resort to "hiyals" (legal gimmicks to go around the law) such as those on which the marriage "misyar" is based, to treat their spouses as second class citizens.

Various Islamic countries have reinterpreted the provisions of the charia relative to family law, in the light of the needs of a modern society, through their own "ijtihad" (legal scholarship) efforts. Each one of them has set for itself new rules of application of these dispositions, based on its own circumstances, needs and social objectives.

The following definition of marriage, which one can read in a recently adopted Code of family law, illustrates how these countries are trying to establish a new equilibrium in the relationships within the family, between husband and wife :

“Marriage is a pact based on mutual assent in order to establish a legal and durable union, between a man and a woman. Its purpose is a life in reciprocal fidelity, purity and the foundation of a stable family under the direction of the two spouses, in accordance with the provisions of this Code.” (27)

In the countries which have promulgated such laws, "misyar" marriage cannot take place.


== Notes and Références ==

(1) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ]

(2) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/misyar.html]

(3) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, (1999), (in arabic), p 10

(4) Jobarti, Somayya : Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]

(5) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Mut’ah marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544100&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]

(6) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ] et Zawaj al misyar, p 11

(7) A fatwa, whether it originates with the Sheikh of Al-Azhar, with the Mufti of Egypt, or with the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA), for example, is not a text of law or a court order with which everybody must comply, whether he likes it or not. A fatwa’s objective is merely to present a qualified legal point of view, which makes it possible for all interested parties to better understand what the law has to say on a given topic, according to the author of the fatwa. The only person that is committed to the fatwa is its author. Thus, none of the 43 member States of IFA is under any compulsion to apply the IFA fatwa, whose provisions may even be incompatible with the national codes of family law of some of them.

* See for example an interview given by Sheikh Abdul Mohsen Al-Obeikan, vice-minister of Justice of Saudi Arabia, to the arabic daily "Asharq al awsat" on July 9, 2006, in which he discusses the legal value of a fatwa by the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) on the subject of misyar marriage, which had been rendered by IFA on April 12, 2006. Some relevant excerpts follow :

(Asharq Al-Awsat) From time to time and through its regular meetings, the Islamic Fiqh Academy usually issues various fatwas dealing with the concerns Muslims. However, these fatwas are not considered binding for the Islamic states. What is your opinion of this?
(Obeikan) Of course, they are not binding for the member Islamic states.
(Asharq Al-Awsat) But, what is the point of the Islamic Fiqh Academy's consensus on fatwas that are not binding for the member States?
(Obeikan) There is a difference between a judge and a mufti. The judge issues a verdict and binds people to it. However, the mufti explains the legal judgment but he does not bind the people to his fatwa. The decisions of the Islamic Fiqh Academy are fatwa decisions that are not binding for others. They only explain the legal judgment, as the case is in fiqh books.
(Asharq Al-Awsat) Well, what about the Ifta House [official Saudi fatwa organism] ? Are its fatwas not considered binding on others?
(Obeikan) I do not agree with this. Even the decisions of the Ifta House are not considered binding, whether for the people or the State.[http://www.asharqalawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=3&id=5572]

(8) Al-Marzuqi Saleh Secretary General IFA, interviewed by TV Alarabiya.net on 12/04/06 concerning the IFA decisions [http://metransparent.com/texts/ulemas_legalize_misyar_marriage.htm]

(9) An-Najimi, Muhammad : member of IFA, interviewed by TV Alarabiya.net on 28/04/06 concerning the IFA decisions [http://www.alarabiya.net/Articlep.aspx?P=23324]

(10) quoted in Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (in arabic), p. 14 ; see also Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, (1999), (in arabic), p. 12

(11) quoted in Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (in arabic), p. 16

(12) quoted in Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (in arabic), p. 16 ; see also Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, p. 15 in which he recommends that the marriage contract be registered to protect the rights of children in case of dispute.

(13) quoted by Al-Hakeem, Mariam : Misyar marriage gaining prominence among Saudis [http://www.gulfnews.com/Articles/RegionNF.asp?ArticleID=165873]

(14) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar p. 8

(15) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar , pp.13-14

(16) Bin Menie, Abdullah bin Sulaïman : fatwa concerning the marriage misyar (and opinions by Ibn Othaymin, Muhammad Saleh et Alalbany, Nassirouddine on the same subject) (in arabic) [http://www.bab-albahrain.net/forum/showthread.php?p=329473#post329473]

(17) Yet another marriage with no strings [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20000407-042210-7478r] fatwa committee of al azhar against misyar

(18) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, p. 24 - see also : Jobarti, Somayya : Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]

(19) Marriage of convenience is allowed, says Grand Imam Tantawi [http://www.dailyexpress.com.my/news.cfm?NewsID=42349]

(20) (Quran, XXX : 21)

(21) (Quran, V : 5)

(22) Wassel quoted in Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (in arabic), p 16)

(23) Arabian Sex Tourism [http://www.danielpipes.org/article/3022] – see also :
Indonesia Deports Saudis for Running Marriage Racket [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1§ion=0&article=85970&d=3&m=8&y=2006]

(24) Chehata, Chafik : droit musulman, Dalloz, Paris, 1970, p. 68

(25) See for example Ahmed, Leila : Women and gender in islam, Yale University Press, 1992 – or Hassan, Raf’at, Islam and women’s rights (arabic translation, 2000) – or Amin, Qassim : Tahrir al mar’a

(26) See for example Zineddine, Nadhera : Assoufour wal hijab – or Zineddine, Nadhera : Alfatat wa chchouyoukh

(27) Kingdom of Morocco, Code of family law, 3 February 2004, art. 4 [http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:Im_QZ2myMBsJ:www.a-e-r.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Commissions/EqualOportunities/EventsAndMeetings/2006/Kiruna-Le_nouveau_Code_de_la_famille_au_Maroc.ppt+Maroc+code+famille+2004&hl=fr&gl=ma&ct=clnk&cd=6&client=firefox-a]


== External links ==

=== English ===

* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ]
* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Mut’ah marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544100&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : The philosophy of marriage in islam [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503543574]
* Kutty : Conditions of valid marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503546572&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Siddiqi : Witnesses and mahr (dower) for marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503549066&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Al-Qasim : Temporary marriage (mut'ah) [http://www.islamtoday.com/show_detail_section.cfm?q_id=367&main_cat_id=17]
* Urfi marriage [http://marriage.about.com/od/islammarriage/g/urfi.htm?once=true&]
* Yet another marriage without strings [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20000407-042210-7478r] fatwa committee of al azhar against misyar
* Misyar marriage [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/misyar.html]
* Misyar marriage [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/misyar.htm]
* Misyar marriage [http://marriage.about.com/od/islammarriage/g/misyar.htm]
* Misyar marriages [http://ziadrazak.net/?p=176]
* Dahiru Atta, Aisha : Misyar marriages : a puzzle or a solution ? [http://www.islamonline.net/English/family/2005/07/article04.shtml]
* Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]
* Misyar offers marriage-lite in strict Saudi society [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060719/od_nm/saudi_marriage_dc_3]
* Al-Hakeem, Mariam : Misyar marriage gaining prominence among Saudis [http://www.gulfnews.com/Articles/RegionNF.asp?ArticleID=165873]
* Part time marriage the rage in Egypt [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/passerby_marriages.html]
* No strings attached marriage enrages Gulf women [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20060425-070226-4676r]
* Prostitution is now official and religiously condoned in Arab land [http://sabbah.biz/mt/archives/2006/04/27/prostitution-is-now-official-and-religiously-condoned-in-arab-land/]
* Marriage or mockery ? [http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10823&Itemid=116]
* Al-Obeikan, Sheikh Abdul Mohsen, vice-ministre de la Justice d'Arabie Saoudite : interview de Asharq al-Awsat du 09/07/06 où il discute de la valeur légale de la fatwa de l'AIF [http://www.asharqalawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=3&id=5572]

=== Arabic ===

* Al-Marzuqi Saleh Secretary General of IFA, interviewed by TV Alarabiya.net on the subject of the IFA decisions on 12/04/2006 [http://metransparent.com/texts/ulemas_legalize_misyar_marriage.htm]
* An-Najimi, Muhammad : member of IFA, interviewed by TV AlArabiya.net on the subject of the IFA decisions on (28/04/06) [http://www.alarabiya.net/Articlep.aspx?P=23324]
* Bin Menie, Abdullah bin Sulaïman : fatwa concerning marriage misyar (and opinions of Ibn Othaymin and Al-albany on the same subject)
* [http://www.bab-albahrain.net/forum/showthread.php?p=329473#post329473]


Articles of related interest by Khalid Chraibi :

1) 1st muharram : lunar or islamic calendar ?

2) The Sheikh of Al-Azhar and the Mufti of Egypt: different readings of the charia


COPYRIGHT :

The article "Misyar marriage" can be freely reproduced in its entirety or in excerpts for non-commercial purposes, on condition that the author and the source be clearly identified.


Version française :

Le mariage "misyar"

Khalid Chraibi

« … en hommes contractant une union régulière et non comme des débauchés ou des amateurs de courtisanes » (Coran V,5)

Résumé des principales conclusions :

Le contrat de mariage « misyar » s’inscrit dans le cadre du régime général du mariage en droit musulman, et non dans celui d’un régime spécial. Sa licité est parfaitement établie.

Le droit musulman confère aux époux le droit de convenir entre eux de certaines stipulations particulières relatives à leurs droits et obligations réciproques, dans le cadre du contrat de mariage. Les époux conviennent, dans le cadre du mariage « misyar », que la femme renoncera à certains de ses droits d’épouse. Mais, cette renonciation ne constitue qu’un engagement moral, qui ne la lie pas sur le plan légal. Elle est en droit de revenir sur cette renonciation à tout moment. Le mari est alors obligé de lui donner satisfaction (ou de la répudier, comme il en a le droit, de toutes les façons).

Tous les effets habituels du mariage musulman s’appliquent, par ailleurs, dans le cadre du mariage « misyar », qu’il s’agisse de la reconnaissance de paternité des enfants nés de l’union, des effets de la filiation, de la prise en charge financière des enfants par leur père, des droits de l’épouse et des enfants à leur part d’héritage, etc.

Cependant, bien que le mariage « misyar » soit parfaitement licite en droit, et que l’épouse puisse à tout moment revendiquer les droits auxquels elle a renoncé lors de la conclusion de l’acte de mariage, de nombreux juristes comme Muhammad Ibn Othaymin ou Nassirouddine Al-Albany, de même que de nombreux professeurs d’Al Azhar, s’opposent à ce type de mariage à cause de ses effets pervers sur la femme, sur la famille et sur la communauté en général.


== Définition du mariage misyar ==

'''Nikah al Misyar''' ("'''mariage du voyageur'''" en arabe) est un montage juridique qui permet à un couple musulman sunnite de s’unir par les liens du mariage, sur la base du contrat de mariage islamique usuel, sans que le mari ait à prendre d’engagements financiers vis-à-vis de sa femme. Cette dernière l’en dispense par une clause du contrat de mariage par laquelle elle renonce à certains de ses droits (tels que la cohabitation des époux, le partage égal des nuits entre toutes les épouses en cas de polygamie, le domicile, la subvention à l’entretien « nafaqa », etc...) (1).

L’épouse continue de mener une vie séparée de celle de son mari, et de subvenir à ses besoins par ses propres moyens. Mais, son époux a le droit de se rendre chez elle (ou au domicile de ses parents, où elle est souvent supposée résider), à toute heure du jour ou de la nuit, quand il en a envie. Le couple peut alors assouvir de manière licite des « besoins sexuels légitimes » (auxquels l’épouse ne peut d’ailleurs pas se soustraire).

Le mariage misyar constitue, d'après certains, une adaptation spontanée du régime du mariage aux besoins concrets de personnes qui n’arrivent plus à se marier de la manière traditionnelle dans des pays tels que l’Arabie Saoudite, le Koweït ou les Emirats Arabes Unis, à cause de la cherté des loyers et de la vie en général ; des montants élevés des dot exigés ; et d’autres raisons économiques et financières similaires. (2)

Il répond aussi aux besoins d'une société conservatrice qui sanctionne sévèrement le "zina" (la fornication) et autres relations sexuelles entretenues hors du cadre du mariage.

Les théologiens expliquent qu’il convient aux jeunes aux moyens trop modestes pour fonder un foyer ; aux veuves aisées (nombreuses dans la région), ayant leur propre domicile et leurs propres ressources financières, et qui ne peuvent plus espérer se remarier selon la formule habituelle (ou ne le désirent pas), parce qu’elles ont par exemple des enfants à charge ; aux femmes divorcées (également nombreuses) ; ainsi qu’aux « vieilles filles » qui voient leur jeunesse se faner dans un célibat involontaire, sans avoir goûté aux joies du mariage, pour quelque raison que ce soit. Il y a ainsi un million et demi de femmes réduites au célibat forcé dans la seule Arabie Saoudite. (3)

Le cheikh d’Al-Azhar Muhammad Sayyed Tantawi, et le professeur Yusuf Al-Qaradawi notent cependant dans leurs écrits et leurs conférences qu’une très forte proportion des hommes qui prennent une épouse dans le cadre du mariage misyar sont des hommes déjà mariés. (4)

Certains traits de ce mariage évoquent le mariage mut’a, en vigueur en Arabie avant l’Islam, et pratiqué encore de nos jours par la communauté shiite, qui le considère comme une forme licite d’union, alors que les musulmans sunnites la considèrent comme illicite. (5)

Mais, le mariage mut’a est basé sur un contrat à durée déterminée, alors que le contrat de mariage misyar est d’une durée indéterminée (même si le mari n’envisage cette union, le plus souvent, que comme un mariage temporaire, qui débouche sur un divorce dans 80 % des cas).

La popularité du mariage misyar aujourd’hui résulte, probablement, d’une méconnaissance de sa véritable nature, et de ses implications légales au niveau du mari, de la femme et des enfants qui peuvent naître dans le cadre de ce mariage.

== La licité du mariage « misyar » ==

Le mariage misyar soulève des questions importantes et complexes, tant sur le plan juridique que social : est-il licite ? Ne bafoue-t-il pas les droits légitimes de l’épouse ? Quelle est la valeur juridique de la renonciation de l’épouse à certains de ses droits ? Quelles sont les conséquences de cette situation sur le plan familial et social ?

Contrairement à une croyance largement répandue, le mariage misyar relève, sur le plan juridique, du régime général du droit musulman, et non d’un régime spécial. Sa conformité à toutes les exigences de la charia est une condition sine qua none de sa validité. Par conséquent, quand les juristes musulmans affirment qu’il est parfaitement licite, ils signifient simplement, par là, que l’acte de mariage doit remplir toutes les conditions requises par la charia (accord des parties, présence d’un tuteur dans certains rites, versement par le mari à son épouse (ou au « tuteur ») d’une dot d’un montant convenu entre eux (qui peut être important ou modeste, à leur gré), présence de témoins, publicité du mariage...). (6)

L’Académie Islamique du Fiqh (AIF), un organe spécialisé de l’Organisation de la Conférence Islamique (OCI), vient de conforter ce point de vue dans une fatwa (7) du 12 avril 2006. (8) et (9)

La clause par laquelle la femme renonce à certains de ses droits (la cohabitation des époux, le domicile, la subvention à l’entretien (nafaqa)...) soulève, quant à elle, des questions de droit plus subtiles. Appartient-elle à cette catégorie de clauses bien connues en droit musulman, qui sont contraires à l’essence du mariage, et qui vicient et rendent nulle l’union légale qui en est assortie ? Ou bien encore, à cette deuxième catégorie de clauses, qui sont frappées de nullité, alors que l’acte de mariage reste valable ?

Le Cheikh d’Al-Azhar Muhammad Sayyed Tantawi rappelle, à cet égard, que le droit musulman confère aux époux le droit de convenir entre eux, dans le cadre du contrat de mariage, de certaines stipulations particulières relatives à leurs droits et obligations réciproques. Quand les époux conviennent, dans le cadre du mariage « misyar », que la femme renoncera à certains de ses droits d’épouse, cela est parfaitement légal, si telle est la volonté librement exprimée de l’épouse. (10)

L’ancien grand mufti d’Egypte Nasr Fareed Wassel ajoute, dans ce contexte, que la femme peut légitimement renoncer à certains de ses droits au moment du mariage, si elle le souhaite, du fait qu’elle a des ressources personnelles, par exemple, ou que son père se propose de continuer à subvenir à ses besoins. Mais, en cas de changement de circonstances, elle peut revendiquer tous les droits que la loi lui confère en sa qualité d’épouse (comme la « nafaqa » par exemple), parce que ce sont des droits inaliénables dans le cadre du mariage. (11)

Wassel souligne que la clause de renonciation ne constitue qu’une promesse de ne pas revendiquer certains droits. Elle a une portée morale certaine, mais est sans valeur sur le plan juridique. L’épouse peut donc la respecter tant qu’elle lui convient, et revenir dessus en cas de besoin.

Il observe qu’une telle clause n’affecte en rien, par ailleurs, les droit des enfants qui naîtraient de cette union, qu’il s’agisse de la reconnaissance de paternité, des effets de la filiation, de la prise en charge financière des enfants par leur père, des droits de l’épouse et des enfants à leur part d’héritage, etc. (12)

L’éminent théologien saoudien Abdullah bin Sulaiman bin Menie, membre du Conseil Supérieur des Ulémas d’Arabie Saoudite, corrobore ce point de vue. D’après lui, l’épouse peut revenir à tout moment sur sa renonciation et exiger de son époux de lui donner tous ses droits, y compris qu’il vive avec elle et qu’il prenne en charge sa « nafaqa ». Le mari est alors libre de lui donner satisfaction ou d’opter pour le divorce (comme tout mari en a le droit, de toutes les façons). (13)

Le professeur Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, (qui dit ne pas apprécier ce type de mariage, mais est bien obligé de reconnaître sa licité (14)), préfère carrément que la clause de renonciation ne soit pas inscrite dans l’acte de mariage, mais fasse l’objet d’un simple accord verbal entre les parties. (15) Il souligne à cet égard que les musulmans sont tenus par leurs engagements, qu’ils soient écrits ou verbaux.

Il conforte ainsi le point de vue de Wassel et de bin Menie sur cette question. Il ajoute que l’inclusion de cette clause dans l’acte n’invaliderait pas ce dernier, ce qui conforte le point de vue des deux autres juristes quand ils disent que la clause peut être contestée par la femme, et ne plus s’appliquer, sans que cela remette en cause la validité du mariage lui-même.

== Effets pervers du mariage « misyar » ==

Bien que le mariage « misyar » soit parfaitement licite en droit, de l’avis des théologiens, et que l’épouse puisse à tout moment revendiquer les droits auxquels elle a renoncé lors de la conclusion de l’acte de mariage, de nombreux juristes comme Muhammad Ibn Othaymin ou Nassirouddine Al-Albany, (16) de même que de nombreux professeurs d’Al Azhar (17) s’opposent à lui du fait qu’il contredit l’esprit du droit du mariage islamique, et a des retombées négatives importantes sur la femme, sur la famille et sur la communauté.

Il conduit à une dégradation des mœurs au niveau des hommes, qui adoptent un comportement irresponsable vis-à-vis de leurs épouses. D’après l’expérience des « agences matrimoniales misyar », l’homme qui recourt au mariage « misyar » a déjà, le plus souvent, un domicile fixe et une épouse aux besoins de laquelle il pourvoit. (18)

Il ne lui viendrait pas à l’idée d’épouser une deuxième femme dans le cadre d’un régime de polygamie, s’il lui fallait obtenir l’accord préalable de sa première épouse et assumer des responsabilités financières additionnelles importantes vis-à-vis de sa seconde femme.

Mais, grâce au mariage « misyar », cet homme se sent dégagé de toute responsabilité financière et morale envers une deuxième épouse, comme si elle n’était qu’un partenaire sexuel licite, une maîtresse « halal ». Il croit qu’il peut mettre fin à cette relation par un simple acte de répudiation, à tout moment, sans aucune conséquence négative pour lui-même. (19)

Etant donné qu'il s’abstient généralement de parler de son remariage à sa première épouse, la relation au sein du couple en est faussée, et de grandes complications peuvent s'ensuivre, culminant même en un divorce, lorsque la femme finit par l’apprendre.

Quant à la seconde épouse, son statut est dévalorisé, parce qu’elle n’a aucun droit sur son mari, que ce soit au niveau du temps qu’il lui consacre, de sa présence dans le foyer, ou de l’aide qu’il peut lui apporter sur le plan financier. De plus, ce mariage débouche à plus ou moins long terme sur un divorce, (dans 80 % des cas, d'après certains), quand la femme ne convient plus à son mari. Elle se retrouve abandonnée, solitaire comme avant son mariage, mais traumatisée par l’expérience. Son statut social souffre aussi de sa répudiation.

Pour ces raisons, Al-Albany estime que le mariage « misyar » n’est pas licite, parce qu’il va à l’encontre des objectifs et de l’esprit du mariage en islam, tel qu’ils sont décrits dans ce verset du Coran :

« … parmi Ses signes qu’Il ait créé pour vous à partir de vous-mêmes des épouses, afin qu’auprès d’elles vous trouviez l’apaisement ; qu’Il ait entre elles et vous établi affection et miséricorde… » ? (20)

Le mariage misyar semble également s’inscrire à l’opposé de la recommandation du verset bien connu : "(Vous sont permises) les femmes vertueuses d'entre les croyantes, et les femmes vertueuses d'entre les gens qui ont reçu le Livre avant vous, si vous leur donnez leur mahr, avec contrat de mariage, non en débauchés ni en preneurs d'amantes." (21)

Al-Albany et Wassel soulignent aussi les problèmes familiaux et sociaux qui découlent du mariage misyar, en cas de naissance d’enfants dans le cadre d’une telle union. Les enfants élevés par leur mère dans un foyer dont le père est toujours absent, sans raison, connaissent parfois de graves perturbations sur le plan psychologique (16) et (22). La situation empire si la femme a été abandonnée ou répudiée par son mari "misyar", sans moyens de subsistance, comme c’est généralement le cas.

Quant à Ibn Othaymin, il reconnaît la licité du mariage misyar sur le plan purement juridique, mais estime qu’il faut s’y opposer parce qu’il s’est transformé en une véritable marchandise commercialisée sur une grande échelle par les « agences matrimoniales », sans aucun rapport avec la nature du mariage islamique. (16)

Les auteurs contestataires soulignent également les retombées négatives de ce type de mariage sur l’ensemble de la communauté, parce qu’il donne libre cours à des pratiques sexuelles qui donnent une fausse idée des croyances, des valeurs et des pratiques religieuses de la communauté.

Ainsi, de riches touristes musulmans de la région du Golfe se rendent régulièrement en vacances dans des pays exotiques où ils « épousent » des call-girls locales, selon les rites islamiques, pour que leurs ébats soient « halal » (licites sur le plan religieux). Dans certains cas, le notaire de l’ « agence matrimoniale » locale prépare en même temps les documents de mariage et ceux du divorce, pour gagner du temps. (23)

De telles parodies du mariage islamique portent préjudice à l’image de l’ensemble de la communauté, et peuvent aussi avoir une mauvaise influence sur la jeune génération.

== De nouveaux codes de droit de la famille ==

Les défenseurs du mariage misyar reconnaissent qu’il se prête à de telles dérives, mais soulignent qu’elles ne sont pas de son seul fait. Elles découlent plus généralement de la manière dont les hommes interprètent et appliquent les règles du droit musulman : la polygamie débridée, la répudiation facile, associées à une grande richesse, en sont les facteurs de base.

Il serait donc plus juste d’expliquer cet état des choses comme un héritage des temps médiévaux, quand le mariage était défini par les auteurs musulmans comme « un contrat posé en vue d’acquérir le droit de jouir de la femme ». (24)

Les organisations féminines font souvent observer, à cet égard, que les versets du Coran et les Hadiths relatifs à ces questions ont le plus souvent été interprétés, tout au long de l’histoire des sociétés islamiques, en faveur des hommes et au détriment des droits des femmes et des enfants. (25)

Elles rappellent que de nombreux mouvements féministes et auteurs réformistes ont demandé, tout au long du 20è s., qu’il soit procédé à une lecture différente du droit musulman de la famille, en utilisant une approche moderne, en vue de l’adapter aux besoins d’une société contemporaine. A leur avis, il est possible de respecter scrupuleusement aussi bien les prescriptions coraniques que les dispositions des conventions internationales relatives aux droits de la femme et de l’enfant. (26)

Mais, cela implique que la communauté islamique moderne reconnaisse à leur juste valeur le rôle central de la femme et de la famille comme des piliers de la communauté, au lieu de les dévaloriser. Il ne serait plus possible aux hommes de recourir à des « hiyals » (ruses juridiques pour contourner les dispositions légales), telles que celles sur lesquelles le mariage « misyar » est basé, pour traiter leurs épouses en citoyens de seconde classe.

Différents pays musulmans ont procédé à une réinterprétation des dispositions de la charia relatives au droit de la famille, à la lumière des besoins d’une société moderne, dans le cadre d’un « ijtihad » (interprétation juridique) propre à chaque pays. Chacun d’eux a établi de nouvelles règles d’application de telles dispositions en fonction de ses circonstances, de ses besoins et de ses objectifs sociaux.

La définition suivante du mariage, qu’on peut lire dans un Code de la famille adopté récemment, illustre la manière dont ces pays essaient d’établir un nouvel équilibre dans les relations au sein de la famille, entre le mari et l’épouse :

« Le mariage est un pacte fondé sur le consentement mutuel en vue d’établir une union légale et durable, entre un homme et une femme. Il a pour but la vie dans la fidélité réciproque, la pureté et la fondation d’une famille stable sous la direction des deux époux, conformément aux dispositions du présent Code ». (27)

Dans les pays où de telles lois ont été promulguées, le mariage « misyar » ne peut pas avoir cours.

== Notes et Références ==

(1) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ]

(2) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/misyar.html]

(3) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, (1999), (en arabe), p 10

(4) Jobarti, Somayya : Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]

(5) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Mut’ah marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544100&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]

(6) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ] et Zawaj al misyar, p 11

(7) Une fatwa, qu’elle émane du Cheikh d’Al Azhar, du Grand mufti d’Egypte, ou de l’Académie Islamique du Fiqh (AIF) par exemple, n’est pas un texte de loi ou une décision judiciaire dont l’application s’impose de manière impérative à qui que ce soit. Son objectif est de présenter un point de vue juridique compétent qui permet à toutes les parties intéressées de mieux saisir ce que la loi dit sur une question d’actualité, d’après l’auteur de la fatwa. Les conclusions de la fatwa ne s’imposent qu’à lui-seul. Ainsi, nul des 43 Etats-membres de l’AIF n’a la moindre obligation d’appliquer les dispositions de la fatwa de l’AIF, qui sont d'ailleurs incompatibles avec les législations nationales de certains d'entre eux en matière de droit de la famille.

Voir à ce sujet la déclaration de Sheikh Abdul Mohsen Al-Obeikan, vice-ministre de la Justice d'Arabie Saoudite, au quotidien « Asharq alawsat », en date du 09/07/06, au sujet de la valeur juridique de la fatwa de l'AIF (www.asharqalawsat.com). En voici quelques extraits :

« (Al-Awsat d'Asharq) De temps en temps, à l’occasion de ses réunions périodiques, l'Académie Islamique du Fiqh publie diverses fatwas ayant trait à des questions qui préoccupent les musulmans. Cependant, ces fatwas ne sont pas considérées comme s’imposant aux états islamiques. Quel est votre point de vue sur cette question ? (Obeikan) Naturellement, elles ne s’imposent pas aux états islamiques membres de l’Académie. (Al-Awsat d'Asharq) Mais, quel est l’intérêt de dégager un consensus au niveau de l'Académie Islamique du Fiqh sur des fatwas qui ne s’imposent pas aux Etats membres ? (Obeikan) Il y a une différence entre un juge et un mufti. Le juge rend une sentence qui s’impose aux personnes concernées. Le mufti, quant à lui, émet une fatwa qui explique un point de vue juridique, mais sa décision ne s’impose à personne. Les décisions de l'Académie Islamique du Fiqh sont des fatwas qui ne s’imposent pas aux autres. Elles expliquent seulement le point de vue juridique, comme c’est exposé dans les livres de fiqh. (Al-Awsat d'Asharq) Bien, que diriez-vous au sujet des fatwas de la Chambre d'Ifta [ organization saoudienne officielle de fatwa ] ? Ses fatwas ne s’imposent-elles pas aux autres ? (Obeikan) Je ne suis pas d'accord avec vous sur ce point. Même les décisions de la Chambre d'Ifta ne s’imposent à personne, que ce soit aux individus ou à l’Etat. »

(8) Al-Marzuqi Saleh Secrétaire Général AIF, interviewé par TV Alarabiya.net le 12/04/06 au sujet des décisions de l’AIF [http://metransparent.com/texts/ulemas_legalize_misyar_marriage.htm]

(9) An-Najimi, Muhammad : membre de l’AIF, interviewé par TV Alarabiya.net le 28/04/06 au sujet des décisions de l’AIF [http://www.alarabiya.net/Articlep.aspx?P=23324]

(10) cité dans Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (en arabe), p. 14 ; voir également Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, (1999), (en arabe), p. 12

(11) cité dans Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (en arabe), p. 16

(12) cité dans Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (en arabe), p. 16 ; voir également Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, p. 15 où il recommande que le contrat de mariage misyar soit enregistré pour préserver les droits des enfants en cas de contestation.

(13) cité par Al-Hakeem, Mariam : Misyar marriage gaining prominence among Saudis [http://www.gulfnews.com/Articles/RegionNF.asp?ArticleID=165873]

(14) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar p. 8

(15) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar , pp.13-14

(16) Bin Menie, Abdullah bin Sulaïman : fatwa concernant le marriage misyar (et opinions d’Ibn Othaymin, Muhammad Saleh et Alalbany, Nassirouddine sur la même question) (en arabe) [http://www.bab-albahrain.net/forum/showthread.php?p=329473#post329473]

(17) Yet another marriage with no strings [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20000407-042210-7478r] fatwa committee of al azhar against misyar

(18) Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Zawaj al misyar, p. 24 - voir également : Jobarti, Somayya : Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]

(19) Marriage of convenience is allowed, says Grand Imam Tantawi [http://www.dailyexpress.com.my/news.cfm?NewsID=42349]

(20) (Coran, XXX : 21)

(21) (Coran, V : 5)

(22) Wassel cité dans Hassouna addimashqi, Arfane : Nikah al misyar (2000), (en arabe), p 16)

(23) Arabian Sex Tourism [http://www.danielpipes.org/article/3022] – voir aussi :
Indonesia Deports Saudis for Running Marriage Racket [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1§ion=0&article=85970&d=3&m=8&y=2006]

(24) Chehata, Chafik : droit musulman, Dalloz, Paris, 1970, p. 68

(25) Voir par exemple Ahmed, Leila : Women and gender in islam, Yale University Press, 1992 – ou Hassan, Raf’at, Islam and women’s rights (arabic translation, 2000) – ou Amin, Qassim : Tahrir al mar’a

(26) Voir par exemple Zineddine, Nadhera : Assoufour wal hijab – ou Zineddine, Nadhera : Alfatat wa chchouyoukh

(27) Royaume du Maroc, Code de la famille, 3 février 2004, art. 4 [http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:Im_QZ2myMBsJ:www.a-e-r.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Commissions/EqualOportunities/EventsAndMeetings/2006/Kiruna-Le_nouveau_Code_de_la_famille_au_Maroc.ppt+Maroc+code+famille+2004&hl=fr&gl=ma&ct=clnk&cd=6&client=firefox-a]


== Liens ==

=== Anglais ===

* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Misyar marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544160 ]
* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : Mut’ah marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544100&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf : The philosophy of marriage in islam [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503543574]
* Kutty : Conditions of valid marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503546572&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Siddiqi : Witnesses and mahr (dower) for marriage [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503549066&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar ]
* Al-Qasim : Temporary marriage (mut'ah) [http://www.islamtoday.com/show_detail_section.cfm?q_id=367&main_cat_id=17]
* Urfi marriage [http://marriage.about.com/od/islammarriage/g/urfi.htm?once=true&]
* Yet another marriage without strings [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20000407-042210-7478r] fatwa committee of al azhar against misyar
* Misyar marriage [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/misyar.html]
* Misyar marriage [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/misyar.htm]
* Misyar marriage [http://marriage.about.com/od/islammarriage/g/misyar.htm]
* Misyar marriages [http://ziadrazak.net/?p=176]
* Dahiru Atta, Aisha : Misyar marriages : a puzzle or a solution ? [http://www.islamonline.net/English/family/2005/07/article04.shtml]
* Misyar marriage – a marvel or misery ? [http://www.arabnews.com/?page=9§ion=0&article=64891]
* Misyar offers marriage-lite in strict Saudi society [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060719/od_nm/saudi_marriage_dc_3]
* Al-Hakeem, Mariam : Misyar marriage gaining prominence among Saudis [http://www.gulfnews.com/Articles/RegionNF.asp?ArticleID=165873]
* Part time marriage the rage in Egypt [http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/M/passerby_marriages.html]
* No strings attached marriage enrages Gulf women [http://www.metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20060425-070226-4676r]
* Prostitution is now official and religiously condoned in Arab land [http://sabbah.biz/mt/archives/2006/04/27/prostitution-is-now-official-and-religiously-condoned-in-arab-land/]
* Marriage or mockery ? [http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10823&Itemid=116]
* Al-Obeikan, Sheikh Abdul Mohsen, vice-ministre de la Justice d'Arabie Saoudite : interview de Asharq al-Awsat du 09/07/06 où il discute de la valeur légale de la fatwa de l'AIF [http://www.asharqalawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=3&id=5572]
* Khalid Chraibi : "Misyar" marriage [http://mariagemessyar.blogspot.com/]

=== Arabe ===

* Al-Marzuqi Saleh Secrétaire Général AIF interviewé par Alarabiya.net au sujet des décisions de l'AIF 12/04/2006 [http://metransparent.com/texts/ulemas_legalize_misyar_marriage.htm]
* An-Najimi, Muhammad : membre de l’AIF, interviewé par AlArabiya.net au sujet des décisions de l’AIF (28/04/06) [http://www.alarabiya.net/Articlep.aspx?P=23324]
* Bin Menie, Abdullah bin Sulaïman : fatwa concernant le marriage misyar (et opinions d’Ibn Othaymin et Al-albany sur la même question)
[http://www.bab-albahrain.net/forum/showthread.php?p=329473#post329473]


Khalid Chraibi : "Misyar" Marriage (Mariage "misyar")

Articles de Khalid Chraibi sur des thèmes de société similaires :

1) 1er muharram : calendrier lunaire ou islamique ?

2) Le Cheikh d'Al Azhar et le Mufti d'Egypte : des lectures différentes de la charia


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